Direitos Humanos em Timor-Leste: falta legislação para promover os direitos das crianças e cidadãos com Necessidades Especiais

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Although constrained by weak capacity and limited resources, the government was committed to children's rights and welfare, and fully engaged with international organizations and NGOs working in this area. The constitution stipulates that primary education shall be compulsory and free; however, no legislation had been adopted establishing the minimum level of education to be provided, nor had a system been established to ensure provision of free education. According to UN statistics, approximately 20 percent of primary school-age children nationwide were not enrolled in school; the figures for rural areas were substantially worse than those for urban areas.

In rural areas heavily indebted parents sometimes provided their children as indentured servants as a way to settle the debt. If the child was a girl, the receiving family may also demand any dowry payment normally owed to the girl's parents.

Violence against children and child sexual assault was a significant problem. Some commercial sexual exploitation of minors occurred. The Indonesian penal code, which remains in effect pending the promulgation of a national penal code, is ambiguous regarding statutory rape, specifying only that it is a crime to have intercourse with someone who has not reached the age of consent for marriage. This age is specified as 15 in the Indonesian civil code.

Thousands of children remained at risk due to their continued displacement. The capacity of the state, communities, and families to protect children was seriously challenged. Incidents of child abuse, including sexual abuse, were reported both inside and outside the IDP camps. Underreporting of child abuse was a problem.

Many students living in IDP camps enrolled in schools near their camp. However, camp-based education was not provided at several IDP camps.

Persons with Disabilities
Although the constitution protects the rights of persons with disabilities, the government had not enacted legislation or otherwise mandated accessibility to buildings for persons with disabilities, nor does the law prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities. There were no reports of discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, education, or the provision of other state services; however, in many districts children with disabilities were unable to attend school due to accessibility problems. Training and vocational initiatives did not address the needs of persons with disabilities. During the year some persons with mental disabilities faced discriminatory or degrading treatment due in part to a lack of appropriate treatment resources or lack of referral to existing resources. Mentally ill persons were imprisoned with the general prison population and were denied needed psychiatric care. An office in the Ministry of Social Solidarity is responsible for protecting the rights of persons with disabilities."
Fonte: USA.GOV | Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs > Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor > Releases > Human Rights > 2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices > East Asia and the Pacific

Ler o relatório completo: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/eap/119059.htm

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